Imply – Infer
The former means “indicate” or “suggest” but not expressed; the latter involves a process of deduction from facts.
When used as “more importantly”, it can usually be omitted.
Inside – Inside of
Unless meaning “in less than”, the latter should be substituted with the former.
In terms of
Should be avoided.
Should be replaced with the thing that is interesting.
Irrespective of – Regardless of
Try not to create verb by adding ‘-ize’; it doesn’t work every time.
Lay – Lie
lay – laid – laid – laying
lie – lay – laid – lying
Less – Fewer
The former stresses quantity, e.g., “he has less troubles than me” means his troubles are not that great;
The latter stresses number, e.g., “he has fewer troubles than me” means his troubles are not that numerous.
Like – As
The former governs nouns and pronouns while the latter governs phrases and clauses.
Line/Along these lines
Often abused; instead use more accurate words to rephrase the meanings.
Try to replace it with more accurate descriptions.
Too vague; try to be more accurate.
Nauseous – Nauseated
The former means something that makes people feel like vomiting; the latter means being uncomfortable in the stomach.
Try avoid using it unless when describing accuracy, e.g., “nice distinction”.
WRONG: He cannot sleep nor eat.
CORRECT: He cannot sleep or eat. / He cannot sleep and nor can he eat. / He can neither sleep nor eat.
Incorrect words; avoid using them.
‘One’ should correspond to ‘one’s’. “One should watch one’s step” but not “One should watch his step”.
Do not “contact” anybody; instead “call” / “look for” / “get in touch” / “meet” somebody.
To be more precise, use something else such as “at this moment”.
Disinterested – Uninterested
The former means “impartial”; the latter means “not interested”.
Divided into – Compose of
A halved apple is divided into two pieces – An apple is composed of skin, flesh and seeds.
Effect – Affect
When used as verbs: the former means “accomplish”; the latter means “to influence”.
Has two quite different meanings: “monstrous wickedness” and “bigness”.
A verb from “Enthusiasm” – better not used at all.
Incorrectly used if following “such as …” “for example, …” etc.
Use this word only of matter capable of direct verification, not of matters of judgement.
A hackneyed word; can always be replaced with something more direct and idiomatic.
Another hackneyed word; usually adds nothing to the sentence.
Flammable – Inflammable
Both mean “combustible”.
A pompous, ambiguous verb.
Used in singular form – “people”; in plural form – “parents” (not in formal writing).
Fortuitous – Fortunate
The former means “limited to what happens by chance” – the latter means “lucky”.
Colloquial use of “have got” cannot be used formally to replace “have”.
Means “unearned”, “unwarranted”.
He is a man who
Redundant phrase; should use “He is” instead.
Should mean “with hope” instead of “I hope” or “it is to be hoped”.
However – Nevertheless
The former means “in whatever way” or “to whatever extent”; the latter means “in spite of that” or “notwithstanding” or “or the same”.
Aggregate – Irritate
Former means ‘making worse’; latter means ‘annoy’.
Allude – Ellude
Former means ‘implicitly refer to’; latter means ‘confuse’.
Allusion – Illusion
Former means ‘implicit reference’; latter means ‘unreal image’.
Among – Between
The former is used when there are more than two of them; however, in that case the latter might be preferred if each of them is regarded as an individual.
As good or better than
Should be re-arranged when used. E.g., my speech is as good as his, or better (if not better).
As to whether
Should instead use whether.
Means “so far” but usually should omit ‘as’ except when occurs at the beginning of a sentence.
Cannot be used after ‘regard … as [being] …’.
No need to be used after ‘doubt’ or ‘help’.
Means ‘be able to’; cannot (is not able to) be used to replace ‘may’.
Usually can be omitted, e.g., “In many cases the rooms were poorly ventilated” -> “Many of the rooms were poorly ventilated”.
Should be avoided using in writing.
Compare to – Compare with
The former address the similarity given the obvious difference; the latter address the differences given some similarities.
Means ’embrace,’ ‘include,’ etc. For example, a zoo comprises animals.
Consider – Consider as
Consider X Y == think X is Y (expressing a belief)
Consider X as Y == based on X being Y (prepare for further thinking)
1. Do not use a hyphen between words that can better be written as one word.
2. Do not spell out dates or other serial numbers. Write them in figures or in Roman notation, as may be appropriate (Exception: When they occur in dialogue, most dates and numbers are best spelled out).
3. Typographical usage dictates that the comma be inside the marks, though logically it often seems not to belong there.
* “The Clerks,” “Luke Havergal,” and “Ricard Cory” are in Robinson’s Children of the Night.
4. Scholarly usage (of title) prefers italics with capitalized initials… Omit initial A or The from titles when you place the possessive before them
* A Tale of Two Cities; Dickens’s Tale of Two Cities.
1. …expressions similar in content and function be outwardly similar.* It was both a long ceremony and very tedious -> the ceremony is both long and tedious; * My objections are, first, the injustice of the measure; second, that it is unconstitutional -> My objections are, first the measure is unjust; second, that it is unconstitutional.
2. The subject of a sentence and the principal verb should not , as a rule, be separated by a phrase or clause that can be transferred to the beginning.* A dog, if you fail to discipline him, becomes a household pest -> Unless disciplined, a dog becomes a household pest.
3. The relative pronoun should come, in most instances, immediately after its antecedent.* There was a stir in the audience that suggested disapproval -> A stir that suggested disapproval swept the audience. * He wrote three articles about his adventures in Spain, which were published in Harper’s Magazine -> He published three articles in Harper’s Magazine about his adventures in Spain.
4. Modifiers should come, if possible, next to the word they modify.* He only found two mistakes -> He found only two mistakes.
5. In presenting the statements or the thought of someone else, as in summarizing an essay or reporting a speech, the writer should not overwork such expressions as “”he said,” “he stated,” “the speaker added,” “the speaker then went on to say,” “the author also thinks.” He should indicate clearly at the outset, once for all, that what follows is summary, and then waste no words in repeating the notification.
6. Place the emphatic words of a sentence at the end.* Humanity has hardly advanced in fortitude since that time, though it has advanced in many other ways -> Since that time, humanity has advanced in many ways, but it has hardly advanced in fortitude. * This steel is principally used for making razors, because of its hardness -> Because of its hardness, this steel is principally used for making razors.
7. The principle that the proper place for what is to be made most prominent is the end applies equally to the words of a sentence, to the sentences of a paragraph, and to the paragraphs of a composition.
Body Schema is how we are aware of the presence of body in the space. More specifically, it was defined by Sir Henry Head as “a postural model of the body that actively organizes and modifies ‘the impressions produced by incoming sensory impulses in such a way that th e final sensation of [body] position, or of locality, rises into consciousness charged with a relation to something that has happened before”. Or it can be understood as “the collection of processes that registers the posture of ones body parts in space”
One of the fundamental properties of body schema is ‘supramodal’ – meaning it consists of various sources of sensory-motor information. And proprioception is one of them (which is interpreted as the sense of the relative position of neighboring parts of one’s body)
The two are different in the sense that: a body image is a person’s perception of the aesthetics and sexual attractiveness of their own body while body schema conssits of sensory-motor capacities that control movement and posture. Or “body image differs from body schema as perception differs from movement”.
Should we be harsh about each innovative research paper (in order to be in CHI) must have a strong (and safe) usability study?
Wait a second, if the answer is yes – why? why doing usability study in the first place?
Imagine parallel universe is real and in the other world, the CHI community even have no idea what ‘usability study’ is. What differences would there be? Is that much a big difference? (here starts the endless argument…)
Let alone ‘usability study’ and back up to the design itself, in my shallow experience in HCI, I humbly think it is very important to generate new ideas. And what is really difficult after that is being able to say, this is actually a good idea. How can one prove and validate his/her ideas? This is much more interesting and worth more effort into it, compared to some of the usability study that just tries to ‘fit’ in the innovate stuff.
Therefore I believe usability study is just one of the many ways toward questioning, proving and improving the innovative design. That means, sometimes we might not need it at all, simply because it is not applicable or there are better ways to do it. However, what is really important, is not the how, but the what – what is the problem – and the why – the motivation and direction of such attempts to ‘gauge’ it.